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Risk Assessment
Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2008-06-26 11:23 UTC (pafca@mre.gov.br)
Date of last update
2013-03-27 20:16 UTC (gutemberg.sousa@mctic.gov.br)
Date of publication
2013-04-01 18:36 UTC (davi.bonavides@itamaraty.gov.br)

General Information
  • Brazil
Title of risk assessment
Risk Assessment for Insect Resistant Maize
Date of the risk assessment
Date not available
Competent National Authority(ies) responsible for the risk assessment
National Technical Biosafety Commission
Setor Policial Sul -SPO Área 5 Quadra 3 Bloco B - Térreo Salas 10 à 14
Brasília, DF
Brazil, CEP - 70610-200
Phone:(5561) 3411-5516
Fax:(5561) 3317-7475
Url:National Technical Biosafety Comission
Risk assessment details
Living modified organism
SYN-BTØ11-1 - YieldGard™ maize
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Resistance to herbicides - Glufosinate
Show detection method(s)
Scope of the risk assessment
  • LMOs for Contained use
  • LMOs for direct use as feed
  • LMOs for direct use as food
  • LMOs for Introduction into the environment
    • Commercial production
    • Field trial
  • LMOs for processing
Risk assessment report / Summary
Methodology and points to consider
Potential adverse effects identified in the risk assessment
modified proteins are degraded by digestion of food, by
gastric fluids and by bacteria present on human being and
animals' gastrointestinal treat. Due to plants bigger
production to the attack of insects, and, particularly, of
Bt11 corn spikes, there are less toxins of fungus origin in
grains, reducing the possibility of intoxications of human
beings and animals. Proteins Cry and PAT do not become
volatile, nor are absorbed by the epidermis, and,
therefore, it would not be justifiable to evaluate the
toxicity of such proteins through inhaling or via dermis.
No unintentional meaningful biological change occurred on
the composition, or on the nutritious value of the grain,
and of the Bt11 corn sawdust, as a consequence of Cry1A(b),
and pat transgene expression, suggesting, then, that Bt11
corn is substantially equivalent in nutritious composition
to the respective isogenic hybrid not genetically modified
and commercial hybrids of corn.
Likelihood that the potential adverse effects will be realized
The dispersion of corn
seeds is easily controlled, once corn domestication
eliminated the ancestral mechanisms of seeds dispersion,
and pollen movement is the only effective escape mean of
corn plants genes. The horizontal gene flow between Bt and
other species, even those that are very related, have
almost no probability of occurrence, for sylvan species
related to corn do not naturally occur in Brazil. The
coexistence between conventional corns cultivations
(improved or creoles), and transgenic cultivation is
possible from the agronomic point of view, and for that,
one should observe the disposition on Normative Resolution
No. 4 of CTNBio. Once B. thuringiensis is a soil
microorganisms, the exposition of live organisms, and of
the environment to this bacteria, or to any element
extracted from it, is an event that abundantly occurs in
nature, not resulting in meaningful risk for the soil micro
biota. However, even if genic flow occurs between Bt11 corn
plants and the creoles varieties, differences of the gene
flow in relation to any other existing allele in plants are
expected. In sum, the gene or allele will only stay in the
population if the gene flow is continuous, with relatively
high frequency, and if there is any adaptation advantage.
In the Brazilian environment, where sexually compatible
native species do not occur, or are known, the risk that
Bt11 corn execute or promote the invasion of uncultivated,
and cultivated areas does not exist.
Possible consequences:
not applicable
Estimation of the overall risk
not applicable
not applicable
Need(s) for further information on specific issues of concern
not applicable
Receiving environment(s) considered
Corn Zea mays L. is a species from the Gramineae family,
Maydae tribe, Panicoideae family. Corn is a separate
species within Zea sub-gender, with chromosome number 2n =
20, 21, 22, 24 (26). The sylvan species closer to corn is
teosinte, found in Mexico, and in some places in Central
America, where it can be crossed with corn cultivated in
production fields. The corn produced can also be crossed
with the most distant genre Tripsacum. This crossing,
however, occurs with great difficulty and results on
sterile-male progeny.
Corn history is over eight thousand years old in the
Americas, being cultivated since the pre-Colombian period.
It is one of the superior plants best scientifically
characterized, being, nowadays, the cultivated species that
reached the highest degree of domestication, and only
survives in nature when it is cultivated by men(4). Today,
there are around 300 races of corn, and within each race,
thousands of crops.
Corn is one of the most important sources of food in the
world, and is raw material for the production of a wide
range of food products, rations and industrial products.
Brazil is the third biggest corn producer in the world with
a production of approximately 35 million tons in 2005,
behind only of the United States of America (282 million
tons), and China (139 million tons)(29). In Brazil, corn is
basically planted in two crops (summer plantation, and
small crop), and it is cultivated practically all over the
national territory, being 92% of the production
concentrated in the South (47% of production), Southeast
(21% of production) and Center-West (24% of production)
(19). In the productive chain of swine, and poultry,
approximately 70 to 80% of the corn produced in Brazil is
LMO detection and identification methods proposed
traditional molecular methods
Additional Information
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